# Keltner Channels

Created by Chester W. Keltner, Keltner Channels are based on an EMA centerline and ATR band widths. See also STARC Bands for an SMA centerline equivalent. [Discuss]

```
// usage
IEnumerable<KeltnerResult> results =
quotes.GetKeltner(emaPeriods, multiplier, atrPeriods);
```

## Parameters

`emaPeriods`

* int* - Number of lookback periods (

`E`

) for the center line moving average. Must be greater than 1 to calculate. Default is 20.`multiplier`

* double* - ATR Multiplier. Must be greater than 0. Default is 2.

`atrPeriods`

* int* - Number of lookback periods (

`A`

) for the Average True Range. Must be greater than 1 to calculate. Default is 10.### Historical quotes requirements

You must have at least `2×N`

or `N+100`

periods of `quotes`

, whichever is more, where `N`

is the greater of `E`

or `A`

periods, to cover the convergence periods. Since this uses a smoothing technique, we recommend you use at least `N+250`

data points prior to the intended usage date for better precision.

`quotes`

is a collection of generic `TQuote`

historical price quotes. It should have a consistent frequency (day, hour, minute, etc). See the Guide for more information.

## Response

```
IEnumerable<KeltnerResult>
```

- This method returns a time series of all available indicator values for the
`quotes`

provided. - It always returns the same number of elements as there are in the historical quotes.
- It does not return a single incremental indicator value.
- The first
`N-1`

periods will have`null`

values since there’s not enough data to calculate.

Convergence warning: The first`N+250`

periods will have decreasing magnitude, convergence-related precision errors that can be as high as ~5% deviation in indicator values for earlier periods.

### KeltnerResult

`Date`

* DateTime* - Date from evaluated

`TQuote`

`UpperBand`

* double* - Upper band of Keltner Channel

`Centerline`

* double* - EMA of price

`LowerBand`

* double* - Lower band of Keltner Channel

`Width`

* double* - Width as percent of Centerline price.

`(UpperBand-LowerBand)/Centerline`

### Utilities

See Utilities and helpers for more information.

## Chaining

This indicator is not chain-enabled and must be generated from `quotes`

. It **cannot** be used for further processing by other chain-enabled indicators.