# Percentage Volume Oscillator (PVO)

The Percentage Volume Oscillator is a simple oscillator view of the rate of change between two converging / diverging exponential moving averages of Volume. [Discuss]

```
// usage
IEnumerable<PvoResult> results =
quotes.GetPvo(fastPeriods, slowPeriods, signalPeriods);
```

## Parameters

`fastPeriods`

* int* - Number of periods (

`F`

) for the faster moving average. Must be greater than 0. Default is 12.`slowPeriods`

* int* - Number of periods (

`S`

) for the slower moving average. Must be greater than `fastPeriods`

. Default is 26.`signalPeriods`

* int* - Number of periods (

`P`

) for the moving average of PVO. Must be greater than or equal to 0. Default is 9.### Historical quotes requirements

You must have at least `2×(S+P)`

or `S+P+100`

worth of `quotes`

, whichever is more, to cover the convergence periods. Since this uses a smoothing technique, we recommend you use at least `S+P+250`

data points prior to the intended usage date for better precision.

`quotes`

is a collection of generic `TQuote`

historical price quotes. It should have a consistent frequency (day, hour, minute, etc). See the Guide for more information.

## Response

```
IEnumerable<PvoResult>
```

- This method returns a time series of all available indicator values for the
`quotes`

provided. - It always returns the same number of elements as there are in the historical quotes.
- It does not return a single incremental indicator value.
- The first
`S-1`

slow periods will have`null`

values since there’s not enough data to calculate.

Convergence warning: The first`S+P+250`

periods will have decreasing magnitude, convergence-related precision errors that can be as high as ~5% deviation in indicator values for earlier periods.

### PvoResult

`Date`

* DateTime* - Date from evaluated

`TQuote`

`Pvo`

* double* - Normalized difference between two Volume moving averages

`Signal`

* double* - Moving average of the

`Pvo`

line`Histogram`

* double* - Gap between of the

`Pvo`

and `Signal`

line### Utilities

See Utilities and helpers for more information.

## Chaining

Results can be further processed on `Pvo`

with additional chain-enabled indicators.

```
// example
var results = quotes
.GetPvo(..)
.GetSlope(..);
```

This indicator must be generated from `quotes`

and **cannot** be generated from results of another chain-enabled indicator or method.